All posts by Sean McCown

I am a Contributing Editor for InfoWorld Magazine, and a frequent contributor to SQLServerCentral.com as well as SSWUG.org. I live with my wife and 3 kids, and have practiced and taught Kenpo for 22yrs now.

Restrict SSRS Permissions

This blog is about the fallout from a really bad incident that happened with an SRS server.  And it has a very valuable lesson in there as well.  I was recently talking to a customer about a problem they had getting their SSRS site to load.  As it turns out the problem was that someone had changed the account the service was running under and that broke the encryption for the site.  Here’s how it played out.  They’ve got a need to be able to access shares on remote servers and the account that SSRS was running under was a local account.  So it couldn’t be given permission to any of the shares.  That’s why they changed the service account.  Now here’s what happened.

Initially they were sunk but SSRS was on a VM and they were lucky enough to have backups.  So they restored the backup to another VM and renamed the server so they could get it on the network.  Then they were able to backup the SSRS encryption key and restore it to the original server.  After that, everything worked right away.  So the first takeaway you have here is to always backup your SSRS encryption keys.  Always.  I’ve had this happen a few times and we didn’t have backups of Windows we could restore so we had to re-enter all the passwords for our data sources.  On one box it wasn’t that big of a deal and on another one it was quite a big pain.  So always backup your encryption keys.

That’s not really the bad part though.  When I had them backup their current encryption key, I told them that I really like to keep a naming format for my encryption key backups.  That format is SSRSEncryptionKey-ServiceAcctDate.snk.  And when they were typing their filename, the name they ended up with was this:
SSRSEncryptionKey-DomainAdmin-20170503.snk.

If you paid close attention, you’ll notice the ‘DomainAdmin’ portion of that name.  Yep, you got it right… they were running SSRS under the domain admin account.  The Windows guy thought that it would be too much trouble to manage the permissions and get everything right on all the shares and DBs that it needed to access.

So this is when I pretty much lost it.  These guys were running  SSRS under a domain admin account because they were too lazy to do the right thing.  It’s unthinkable.  There may be some reasonable excuses why you’re not able to change your current security model to something better.  You may even be able to convince me that you’re not just being lazy.  But to actively be lazy about your security isn’t something I’m going to take lying down.  Hey, I know it’s your shop, and I know you can ultimately do whatever you like, but I’m going to make sure you know what you’re doing.

So to those of you out there who are even considering being lazy about security, don’t.  Do what you need to do.  You won’t get it right all the time.  There’s a lot of misinformation out there and there are a lot of pitfalls.  So not getting it completely right is ok.  You do what you can when you can.  but laziness will never be an excuse.

Happy Birthday Minion

Update: Our birthday is past and the giveaway is over, but you can still get a 90 day trial over on MinionWare.net. And if you like, check out the recording of the Welcome to Minion Enterprise webinar that we held right after!

It’s been a year since we officially launched MinionWare and launched our flagship product, Minion Enterprise.  Since then we’ve hit many SQL Saturdays, and a few other events, to spread the word.  And things are looking bright!  We’ve been received openly by the community we’ve given so much time to, and we’re finding our foothold as a vendor.

You guys know our business model: Give away as much as you can.  We started by giving away our world-class maintenance tools (Minion Backup and Minion Reindex), and we’ve committed ourselves and our company to only making them better.  With the excitement we feel about the upcoming release of Minion CheckDB and the fact that we just passed our 1 year anniversary, we’ve decided to do something bigger…give away Minion Enterprise.

From now until 5:00pm (Central Time), on July 15, 2016, anyone who emails us a request will get 3 free Minion Enterprise licenses. 

We really want to say thanks to the SQL community worldwide and we couldn’t think of a better way.  Somehow merely saying thanks just didn’t seem big enough. So, thanks…and have some free enterprise management software for life.

How about some free licenses?
How about some free licenses?

Of course there are just a couple caveats so see the restrictions below:

  1. Email us before 5:00pm Central Time on July 15.  If you’re even 1 minute late, that’s too bad, because the offer is over.
  2. This is available for the current version only.  Free licenses are eligible for patches and service releases of the current version, but not upgrades.
  3. Support will be offered for 3 months.  Afterwards a support contract will need to be purchased.
  4. Any additional licenses will need to be purchased.
  5. Licenses are not transferable to any other companies.

Minion CheckDB Beta

Come meet Codex!
minion checkDB
We’ve had many of you asking to be part of the Minion CheckDB beta and now is the time. We’re putting the finishing touches on the 1st beta and it’s looking great with some fabulous features.
So this is the open call for beta users. If you’d like to meet Codex before anyone else then send me an email.
We have some requirements though. We don’t want dead beta users. This is your chance to shape the product and we want to hear from you. So if you’re serious about putting the product through its paces then we definitely want you. So you should be ready to provide real feedback, report bugs as you find them, and work with us to fix them.

That’s it. Just be ready to work with us. Many of you have been part of our betas before so you know we’re very responsive and we do our best to give you the product you want to use. We’re going to try to update the beta monthly, but possibly more often if we have an important feature we need to get into your hands.

We’ve got to finish up some details, make a video, and maybe some base-level docs so we’re going to get it into your hands probably late next week, but we want to know who’s going to be in the program. So don’t wait, get your email into me soon and we’ll let you know within a day or so whether you’ll be accepted into this cycle. It’s going to depend on whether you’re going to be active.

Truncating your Log Files

I want to show you a great piece of code to truncate and shrink all your log files. The biggest question you always ask is why should you shrink your log files? It’s been drilled into everyone’s head that shrinking log files is bad because you can cause too many VLFs, and of course there’s the zeroing out that happens when they grow.
OK, so let’s answer that question. There are a couple reasons you’d want to shrink all the files to a small size.
1. Let’s say you’ve got to move some logs to another drive, or all of the logs. If left unchecked your logs may have occasion to get rather big. So you could honestly have some pretty large log files lying around. And when you’ve got a downtime to move these files, you don’t need to extend it by copying really large (yet mostly empty) log files. So it’s best to shrink the files so you can copy them over quickly.
2. Also, if you’re trying to restore a prod DB to dev or QA and you don’t have the same kind of space over there then you’ve got to shrink the file. Why try to restore a 90GB log file that’s only 1% full? So shrink the log, take the backup, and then it’ll restore.
3. And of course if you’ve got several logs on the same drive and one of them gets blown up to an enormous size, it may leave the drive too full for the others to expand. There’s no reason to keep a 50GB or 90GB file mostly empty just because you’re afraid of a VLF problem you probably won’t even have.

So there are 3 reasons you may need to truncate log files. Now here’s the script to actually make the change. It’s simple but it gets the job done.
This is one of those times when a cursor is the perfect solution for the job. I know it’s popular to bad-mouth cursors but a lot of times they’re perfect for this type of admin work. However, on top of the cursor solution there’s also a different way to do it. The cursor solution will allow you to run the code for each DB. You can also add in some error handling, and other logic if you like. So ultimately it can be built into a more complete solution. But I’m a big lover of code that writes code. So first, I’m going to show you a simpler solution using string building in a query.

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SELECT 'USE [' + DB_NAME(database_id) + ']; ' + 'DBCC SHRINKFILE([' + name + '], 1024)'
FROM sys.master_files
WHERE type_desc = 'LOG'
AND database_id > 4
ORDER BY DB_NAME(database_id) ASC

You can see that it’s a simple script that gets the job done. If you’re running it from PowerShell you can run the results in your PS loop with no problems. You could even write the results to a table and use some other automated process to pick up the statements. Or, in cases like this, my favorite is to just select and run them by hand.

Now for the cursor version. Again, you can put in lots more logic in here and you have more control over the entire process in general. So they’re both worthy methods to have.

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------Truncate and shrink all Log Files-----------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
/*
The biggest question I get with this is why you would want to shrink all log files.  There's a question of VLFs and log growths, etc.
Well, a simple use case for this is when you need to move a bunch of log files to a new drive and you don't want to be up all night.
Shrink them down and transfer just a few gigs instead of a few dozen or even into the hundreds of gigs.
 
Another reason is to restore a DB to a dev box or something.  If the drive isn't as big as it is on your main box then you'll need to shrink the log so you can actually restore.
Then take the backup.
 
So the fact that it may be good to leave your logs alone for the most part, there are times when it's best to trim them.
Of course, the obvious other reason is space.  If you've got a lot of log files on a single drive then you need the space to be managed a little tighter and if you've got one that got
blown out really big for some reason then there's no reason the others have to suffer because you refuse to shrink it.
 
*/
 
 
DECLARE
@curDBName sysname,
@curFileName VARCHAR(2000),
@SQL varchar(4000),
@FileSize VARCHAR(10);
 
SET @FileSize = '1024'; -- The size you want the files to be shrunk to.
 
Declare DBName Cursor For
	SELECT DB_NAME(database_id) AS DBName, name AS FileName 
	FROM sys.master_files
	WHERE type_desc = 'LOG'
	AND database_id > 4
	ORDER BY DB_NAME(database_id) ASC
 
 
Open DBName 
Fetch Next From DBName INTO @curDBName, @curFileName
 
while @@Fetch_Status = 0
 
	Begin
 
		SET @SQL = 'USE [' + @curDBName + ']; ' 
		SET @SQL = @SQL + 'DBCC SHRINKFILE ([' + @curFileName + '], ' + @FileSize + ')'
 
PRINT @SQL;
--EXEC (@SQL);
 
Fetch Next From DBName INTO @curDBName, @curFileName
END
 
Close DBName
DeAllocate DBName
 
GO

Chicago Mafia Will Rise Again in March

This is a critical time in Chicago’s history. At no other time have they been in more danger of having the mafia rise up and take over the city. Gangsters like Capone are going to be more powerful than ever within the next 2 weeks and there’s little the police can do to stop it. That doesn’t mean that they can’t be stopped. What we need are some really strong enterprise scripters out there. DBAs who know how to get the job done so they can go to lunch on time. With all this extra DBA presence in local restaurants on a regular basis, the mafia won’t have a chance to take hold. This is critical people, don’t let this happen. Sign up for our Enterprise Scripting Precon. The life you save may be your own.

You can sign up here: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/the-enterprise-scripting-workshop-a-sql-saturday-chicago-precon-tickets-19917182830

If you let this opportunity go by, then we’re not responsible for what happens to the city of Chicago, or maybe even your family.

A Very Heated Argument about Backup Tuning in Minion Backup

A couple weeks ago we here at MinionWare got into a very heated argument that lasted most of the morning and part of the afternoon. The argument was around the backup tuning settings in Minion Backup (MB), and how they should work vs. how they actually work.
The problem came about because Jen was doing some testing for her first MB session at a user group. She came across an issue with the tuning settings when she added the time component to the Minion.BackupTuningThresholds table. She noticed that she wasn’t getting the tuning settings she thought she should get when she was trying to tune for a specific time of day. So naturally she assumed I was stupid and filed it as a bug.

In actuality though it’s doing exactly what it’s supposed to, and it’s following the letter of the Minion Backup law. That law is “Once you’re at a level, you never go back up”. Let me show you what I mean.

Precedence in the Tuning Thresholds table

Take a look at this sample Minion.BackupTuningThresholds table.

TuningThresholds

Ok, in the above table we’ve got some tuning rows. This is a truncated version of the table, but it’s all we need to demonstrate precedence. We’ve got two rule sets here; one for MinionDefault (the row that provides all the default configuration settings), and one for MinionDev (a specific database on my server).

  • MinionDefault is a global setting that says unless the DB has an override, it’ll take its rows from here.
  • MinionDev is the only DB on this server that has an override, so it’ll take its settings from the MinionDev rows.

At the most basic level, the precedence rule states that once there is an override row for a database, that database will never leave that level…it will never default back to the default row. So in this example, MinionDev is at the database level for its settings, so it will never go back up to the more generic MinionDefault row. Once you’re at a level, you stay at that level.

A “Zero Row” for every level

I’m going to explain how these rows work, and why they are the way they are. Notice that for both levels (that is, for the MinionDefault rows, and for the MinionDev rows), there is what we call a zero row. This is where the ThresholdValue = 0. The zero row is especially important for the MinionDefault row, because this is what covers all DBs; it’s quite possible that you could get a database that’s less than your lowest threshold value.

In the above table, the lowest (nonzero) threshold value for MinionDefault is 20GB. That means that no DBs under 20GB will get any tuning values. Without any tuning values, the number of files would be NULL, and therefore you wouldn’t be able to backup anything…they wouldn’t have any files. So setting the zero row is essential.

And, since each DB stays at that level once it’s got an override, then whenever you put in a DB-level override it’s an excellent idea to give that DB a zero row as well. It may be 50GB now, but if you ever run an archive routine that drops it below your lowest threshold, then your backups will stop if you don’t have that zero row to catch it. Did I explain that well enough? Does it make sense?

That’s how the rule is applied at a high level between DBs. Let’s now look at how it’s applied within the DB itself.

“Zero Rows” within the database level

As I just stated above, you should really have a zero row for each database that has an override row (you know, where DBName = <yourDBname>).

Let’s look at MinionDev above. It has a BackupType=All set, and a BackupType=Full set. The All set takes care of all backup types that don’t have backup type overrides. So in this case, the All set takes care of Log and Diff backups, because there’s a specific override for Full. Get it? Good, let’s move on.

Notice that MinionDev has a zero row for the All set, and a zero row for the Full set. This is essential because following the rules of precedence, once it’s at the MinionDev/Full level, it doesn’t leave that level. So again, if there’s a chance that your database will fall below your lowest tuning threshold – in this case it’s 150GB – then the backup will fail, because there are no tuning parameters defined below 150GB. This again is why the zero row is so important: because it provides settings for all backups that fall below your lowest tuning setting.

And, if you were to put in a BackupType=Log override for MinionDev, it would also need to have a zero row. I could argue that it’s even more important there because it’s quite possible that your log could be below your tuning threshold.

So now, our Argument

That’s how the precedence actually works in the Minion.BackupTuningThresholds table. The argument started when Jen thought that it should move back up to the All set if a specific BackupType override falls below its tuning threshold. So in other words, in the above table, she wouldn’t require a zero row for the MinionDev-Full set. Instead, if the DB size fell below the 150GB threshold, she would move it backup to the MinionDev-All set, and take the lowest tuning threshold from there.

She said that it wasn’t in the spirit of the precedence rules to make the setting quite that pedantic. So after hours of arguing, drawing on the board, making our case, sketching out different scenarios, etc… we just kinda lost steam and moved on, because she had to get ready for her talk.

The point is though that this is the way it currently works: once it’s at its most specific level, it stays there. So, if you have tuning settings for specific backup types, you’d be really well served to have a zero row for each one just in case.

And I’ll also note that BackupType is the lowest granularity. So, Day and Time (another config option in this table) have nothing to do with this setting. You need to concentrate on the DBName and BackupType. Everything else will fall into place.

Final Caveat: We break the rule (a little)

Now, I know it sounds like a contradiction, but there is just one place where I break this rule. I call it the FailSafe. With the FailSafe, it’s possible to have specific overrides and still get your tuning thresholds from the MinionDefault zero row. Here’s why:

This is a rather nuanced config in Minion Backup, and it’s fairly easy to get something wrong and wind up without a backup. I didn’t want that to happen. So, if you do something like leave your zero row out for an override level, and your DB falls below your lowest threshold setting, you would wind up without any backup because there isn’t a number of files to pass to the statement generator.

Failsafe says, if you screw up and don’t have a tuning setting available, MB will grab settings from the MinionDefault Zero Row.

In this situation, I kick in the FailSafe mechanism, which pulls the tuning settings from the MinionDefault zero row. At least you’ll have a backup, even if it’s slow.

(That was one of Jen’s arguments: that a FailSafe is a great idea, but she wants it to come from the DB-All set instead of the MinionDefault-All set. I don’t know, maybe she’s right. Maybe that’s more intuitive. I’ll have to think about it. It wouldn’t be that big of a change really. I could walk up the chain. In the above table I could try the MinionDev-All zero row and if that doesn’t exist then I could use the MinionDefault-All zero row. What do you guys think?)

So why not just hardcode a single file into the routine so that when this happens you’re backing up to that single file? The answer is: flexibility. Your MinionDefault zero row may be set to 4 files because all your databases are kinda big and you don’t ever want to backup with fewer than that. So, set your MinionDefault zero row to something you want your smallest DB to use. If that’s a single file, then ok, but if it’s 4 or 6 files, then also ok. That’s why I didn’t hardcode a value into the FailSafe: It’s all about giving you the power to easily configure the routine to your environment.

Takeaways:

  1. The precedence rules are followed to the very letter of the law.
  2. Once a database is configured at a level, it stays there.
  3. The configuration level is specific to DBName, and then (at the next most specific level) to the DBName and BackupType.
  4. Whenever you have database-level override row, always have a zero row for it.
  5. Whenever you have a BackupType-level override, always have a zero row for it.
  6. The FailSafe defaults back to MinionDefault Zero Row, if a level-appropriate setting isn’t available.

Ok, that’s it for this time. I hope this explanation helps you understand the reasoning behind what we did.

The Problem with Mirrored Backups

I wanted to have a discussion on an issue that came up with Minion Backup the other day and share the solution with you.

The question came in last week about how to recover from mirrored backups that fail.  When the user was taking mirrored backups, sometimes the network that goes to the mirrored location fails, and that kills the backup.  First though, let’s have a small talk about what mirrored backups are and when they’re best used.

By mirroring backups, you’re saying that you want to backup to 2 locations simultaneously.  So let’s say you have the need to backup your DBs to a local SAN drive, but also you need to send them to another data center in case something happens to your local SAN.  The way to do that in SQL is with mirrored backups and the syntax looks like this:

BACKUP DATABASE MyDB TO DISK = ‘G:\MyDB.trn’ MIRROR TO DISK = ‘\\DC1\MyDB.trn

So above you can see that SQL will write both of these files at once, and give you a good amount of redundancy for your DB backups.  However, this can go wrong when your network isn’t stable or when the link to the other data center is slow.  So you should only mirror backups when you can pretty much guarantee that it won’t fail or lag.  And as you can guess that’s a heavy burden to put on most networks.  In the situation last week that spawned this blog, the network went down for something like 9 hrs and caused the DB’s log to not be backed up that entire time, and hence the log grew and grew.  Now you’re in danger of bringing prod down and that’s clearly not what your backup strategy should do.

So the original question was, how can I fix this with Minion Backup?  Well, MB was specifically designed to help you get around limitations in native SQL backup, and this being one of them.  The simple solution is to just not take a mirror backup.  Instead, take a regular backup and set MB to copy the files to the other data center after.  This way even if the network to the data center goes down for a few hours, you’re still taking your local backups so there’s no danger to prod.  The feature itself isn’t called ‘Copy’ though, it’s called ‘File Actions’.  The reason is because it does more than just copy.  It can also move files if you prefer… or copy and then move.  And who knows, maybe there’ll be public outcry for something else and the feature will get expanded.  But this is why we called it File Actions instead of simply Copy.

And the next question is, how hard is it to setup MB to copy backups and do I need to create a separate job?  The answer is of course, it’s extremely easy, and no you don’t need any extra jobs.  Configuring backup copies in MB just takes a couple table entries and it’s very flexible.  Here are some of the copy features available:

  1. Configure with no extra jobs.
  2. Copy or Move, or Copy and Move.
  3. Copy to as many locations you like.
  4. Specify the order of the locations that you copy to.
  5. Use a different copy utility for each drive if you like.
  6. Use different copy parameters for each drive if you like.
  7. Maintain custody chain. That means that MB will still delete the copied files on your schedule.
  8. Each drive can have its own delete schedule.
  9. Copy files right after the DB backup finishes or after all DBs on the server are processed.
  10. Each DB and backup type can have its own location, and still no extra jobs.

Ok, you can see how rich the copy feature in MB is.  Now that you know, you can stop mirroring and easily protect yourself with this rich feature.  And because I care, you can watch this video tutorial on using the copy feature in Minion Backup.  http://midnightdba.itbookworm.com/Video/Watch?VideoId=424

But if you prefer to read it instead, you can go to the docs and just search for File Actions.  Or you can go to SSMS on a server that has MB installed and use the built-in docs by running the sp with these parameters:  Minion.Help ‘Backup‘, ‘How to: Copy files after backup (single and multiple locations)

 

And to see what other help topics are available, simply call the help sp with just one parameter: Minion.Help ‘Backup

 

 

 

ServerLabels in Minion Backup

There’s a great way to increase the effectiveness of your backup and HA strategy: use the ServerLabel feature in Minion Backup.

The problem with most backup solutions is that they don’t take AG failover into account.  Here’s a common scenario to show you what I mean.

Let’s say you’re backing up to \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups.  Most of the time, your backup routine will append the server name and probably the database name to the path.  There are other things that can get added, but we’ll keep this simple.  So your backup path winds up looking like this instead: \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB.  The problem comes when you’re running an AG and you’re either taking backups on different nodes or when your backup node fails over and the backups continue on a different node.  Either way you’re stuck with your backups being in two different locations.  Here’s what I mean.

Before Failover:

Full backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB

After Failover: Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server2\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server2\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server2\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server2\MyDB

Fail Back to Original Node:

Diff backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\Server1\MyDB

So you can see that there are different backups in different locations.  And the log chain starts on Server1, then moves to Server2, and then back to Server1.  This can make it very difficult to build a restore statement if you don’t really know where your files are going to be.  And also, if you look above you’ll also see a diff backup was taken once it failed back to Server1.  But if Server1 wasn’t the primary node, then the diffs would be taken on another server which would add a 3rd one into the mix.

This exact scenario is what we have solved in Minion Backup.  With MB you can define a ServerLabel that gets used instead of the server name.  Let’s say we define the ServerLabel to be ‘AGListener1’.  We can do that with a simple update statement like this:

 

UPDATE Minion.BackupSettingsPath

SET ServerLabel = ‘AGListener1’

 

Now every backup on your server is going to use this ServerLabel instead of the server name.  Here’s what the failover scenario above looks like with this new ServerLabel.

 

Before Failover:

Full backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB

After Failover: Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB

Fail Back to Original Node:

Diff backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB Log backup – \\BackupNAS\SQLBackups\ AGListener1\MyDB

Problem solved.  Now no matter which node you backup on, the files go to the same location.  And why not?  They’re the same database aren’t they?  So why complicate things by having them go to separate locations just because your AG failed over.

And it’s not just for AGs.  You can use a ServerLabel for any server you like.  Say you want to associate it with the DNS name of the server instead, or the application name.  That’s just as easy.  ServerLabel is here to give you a customizable server name to use in your path.

And it doesn’t stop there.  You can setup a ServerLabel for specific databases on a server, or even for specific backup types or backup types for specific databases.  It’s very flexible.

It’s such a tiny, unassuming feature, but it can have tremendous effects on your backup scenario.  You can see this http://midnightdba.itbookworm.com/Video/Watch?VideoId=428, and our other Minion Backup videos at http://midnightdba.itbookworm.com/Minion/Backup.

19 Things you didn’t know about Minion Backup

I thought I’d have a little fun here.

  1. The basis for Minion Backup has been used for years by the MidnightDBA team at various shops. And while it was the inspiration for the current iteration of Minion Backup, the previous non-commercial versions seem so poorly written Sean considers them an embarrassment and they will never see the light of day again.
  2. There are portions of Minion Backup that were completely re-written several times as different things came about.
  3. The hardest feature to write was the Data Waiter. It was re-written several times before a workable version was found.
  4. The Minion Backup suite contains 14,290 lines of code.
  5. The features in the Minion suite follow a pattern. A feature is released in one product, and then it gets rolled out into the other products. Then another product gets a new feature that in turn gets rolled out into the other products. So a single product is used as a pilot for a single feature.
  6. Our service packs also follow a pattern. Whenever we release a service pack someone reports a bug that would’ve been easily fixed. It doesn’t matter how long we wait. The new bug report will come within a week after release.
  7. We didn’t write Minion Backup for the community. We wrote it for ourselves. We just released it to the community because we knew you’d love it as much as we do.
  8. While it’s honestly impossible to nail down any one thing, Sean thinks the most useful feature of Minion Backup is the BackupPaths table. However, the feature he’s the most proud of writing is Dynamic Tuning.
  9. The feature Jen thinks is the most useful is the pre/post code. And the feature she’s the most proud of is the fact that Minion Backup keeps track of files as they’re moved or copied and even keeps them in the delete rotation.
  10. We don’t have a voting system for feature requests. If even one person requests a feature, we’ll put it in if it’s a good idea.
  11. We usually don’t add features in service packs, though we’re starting to change that policy. Sometimes there’s just no reason to wait.
  12. We seek large customers, or customers with edge case scenarios to perfect our features. We’ve got power users for almost every aspect of the product and we go to them for enhancement ideas and bug fixes.
  13. We spend more time supporting Minion Backup than we do any other product. Not because it has more bugs, but because it’s so popular and so configurable. Most issues are configuration related. And we try to document issues like this better, so that means even more documentation.
  14. We feel we’ve already overloaded users with too much documentation. But the answers are almost always there if you just look. And while it’s too much for most, someone always appreciates that level of documentation.  But yeah, even we think it’s a lot.
  15. There were times we were so frustrated with getting a specific feature to work properly we almost scrapped the project completely. Thankfully it was just a momentary tantrum.
  16. Not a single feature idea was borrowed from another product. Everything was something we wanted to do. We have had a few users suggest features or enhancements that made it in.
  17. People are starting to teach Minion Backup sessions at user groups and conferences. What a great compliment to our product.  We honestly never expected that.
  18. We never even thought about charging for Minion Backup. It was always going to be a free tool.  And even though it’s been suggested to us a number of times that it’s ridiculous for us to put so much effort into a free tool, we still have no plans for it.
  19. Most of our feature ideas didn’t occur until we decided to take it public. That seems to contradict #7 where I said we wrote it for ourselves. It kind of happened hand in hand. We decided to take it public, but then we started viewing ourselves as the public and asking ourselves what features we’d want and all the different scenarios we’ve been in over the years. We wanted to cover every single one of them. And we wanted to make it as easy and flexible as possible. This is what proved to be the most difficult.

There you go folks, our Minion Backup trivia.

Cannot Generate SSPI Context

I woke up pretty early this morning and decided to get something in my dev environment worked out that I’ve been meaning to do for a long time now. I needed to put my main Minion dev box on a domain acct for SQL. It was currently running under local system. So I switched it to use the domain acct SQLSvc. The second I restarted SQL with the new acct I got the dreaded “Cannot Generate SSPI Context”.

Here’s my fix and I’m hoping it’ll help someone in the future.

First let me say that SSPI errors can be caused by a number of things. This one turned out to be an SPN error, but it doesn’t have to be. Among other things it could be:

  1. DNS lookup.
  2. SQL Server time out of sync .
  3. Client time out of sync.
  4. Anything else that keeps Kerberos from working.

 

Now there are also things that can keep the SPN from being created or used. The account could not have the perms it needs to create the SPN in AD, or there could be duplicate SPNs. You can only have 1. Or you could simply have the wrong SPN. Make no mistake, this issue had caused many gray hairs in many DBAs, and I personally always sigh when it comes up because it can be fixed in 5mins or it can take 4 days and 3 MS support techs getting involved. Most of the time though, it’s more straight forward than that. I’m not going to even attempt to make this a treatise on troubleshooting every aspect of this error though. I’m just going to show you how to diagnose the SPN portion of it and quite often that’s the issue so if it doesn’t work for you it’ll at least eliminate the SPN and you can concentrate your efforts on something else.

OK, that’s enough prelim stuff, let’s get to it.

First, we need to see what SPNs we have on the box. There are 2 ways you can do that depending on what rights you have in the domain. I’m going to show you both of them so you can have a visual guide as well as a cmdline guide.

To see what SPNs you have on the box, go to the cmdline and type the following:

SETSPN –L MinionDevCon

What I’m saying here is to list (-L) the SPNs registered for the SQL box I’m interested in. In this case, MinionDevCon.

See below for the query and the results.

SPN1

Also, notice that the SETSPN command isn’t case sensitive.

So above you can see that I’ve got 2 SPNs for my SQL acct on that box.  Now we just have to delete one of them.  However, before we fix this issue, I’ll show you another way to view the same info.

If you have access to AD, then you can also see the SPNs in the computer object properties.  So go to AD and navigate to the computer object for your SQL box.  Again, in my case this is MinionDevCon.  Then go into the properties of that computer object.  You’ll want to go to the Attribute Editor tab.

SPN2

Now find servicePrincipalName and either double-click it or highlight it and hit Edit.  This will show you the list of SPNs for that computer object.

Here you can see my 2 SPNs just like at the cmdline.

SPN3

Deleting the extra SPN:

Deleting the bad SPN is a fairly straight forward operation.  And again I’ll show you 2 ways.

At the cmdline, simply use the SETSPN cmd again and pass in the delete flag.

SETSPN -D MSSQLSvc/MinionDevCon.MIdnight.DBA:1433 MinionDevCon

So again, that’s SETSPN <SPN> <Computername>
The SPN in the cmd above should be exactly the way it was represented in the list when it was queried.  Here’s the command in the query window so you can see what it looks like:

SPN4

Ahhh, see there, my regular acct doesn’t have rights to do this.  I wanted you to see what happens when you don’t have rights.  You will quite often need to get your AD guys to do this for you.  So if you just prepare the cmd and send it to them they’ll be able to make it happen.  Here’s what it looks like when I log in under my domain admin acct.

SPN5

And again, that cmd is simple.  Call SETSPN with the -D flag, which tells it to delete.  Then the exact name of the SPN followed by the name of the server.

Now let’s do the same thing in AD.  So you’re still in your computer object properties like above.  Simply highlight the SPN you want to drop and then click the Remove button.  It’ll put it in the text box above, but just click OK and it’ll be gone.

SPN6

Ok, that’s it.  I didn’t have to restart my SQL service, but I’ve heard of people who have.

Now, this was just a quick tutorial on how to manage SPNs.  This hole can go pretty deep.  Here’s a decent link on MSDN for troubleshooting SPNs.  I don’t think I like their troubleshooting because they don’t really do a good job of showing you the commands, but it’s a good explanation of the problem, what an SPN is, etc.  If I remember correctly it’ll also help you choose the right SPN.